Skip to main content

Ethel K Smith Library

*Citation Basics Guide: Chicago Citation Guide

How to: Capturing Evidence

The 3 Basic Ways to Capture Evidence 

Direct Quote: A direct quote is information taken from a source verbatim, or exactly as it appears in the source. In Chicago, it is standard to put quotation marks around your direct quote. The writer must include note at the end of the quotation marks with a citation at the end of the page.

      Ex: T. Owens states "Michael wears a new and different pair of sneakers made by Nike. Each pair of sneakers is made from a mold of his foot for a perfect fit."

Paraphrase: When paraphrasing information/an idea from a source, a writer uses his or her own words to represent the information taken from the source. Keep in mind that although the writer is using their own words, the information/ideas are not his or her own information/ideas, so the paraphrase must have a note at the end of the sentence with a citation at the end of the page.

      Ex: T. Owens asserts that Michael Jordan wears a different pair of Nike sneakers to every game, each tailored specifically to fit his feet. 
Summary: A summary is similar to a paraphrase because the writer is using his or her own words, but unlike a paraphrase, a summary condenses an entire source into a sentence. Again, although the writer is using their own words to summarize the source, the information/ideas are not his or her own information/ideas, so the summary must have a note at the end of the sentence with a citation at the end of the page.

      Ex: In Michael Jordan: Legendary Guard, T. Owens describes some of Jordan's favorite things, such as steak and eggs, Nike sneakers, golf, and his family.

Additional Resources

Google Web Search

Chicago Citations

Basic Principles of Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) provides directions for two citation systems: Notes-Bibliography System (NB) and Author-Date system. Most of the time when Chicago Style is required, you will be using the NB System, so this guide will focus on it exclusively. This guide will not cover short notes, as these are considered optional, but more information can be found in the Chicago Manual of Style. 

There are two main components to citing in Chicago: footnotes and a bibliography. The bibliography is a list of sources used that comes at the end of an essay, while the footnotes function as in-text citations comprised of a superscript number in the text and a corresponding citation in the footer section of the essay. 

While footnotes and bibliography entries are similar, they are formatted slightly differently, so it's important not to cut and paste assuming both are the same. This guide will go over some of the basics of footnotes and bibliography entries. If you need further assistance, consult a writing tutor or your professor. 

How to Format a Bibliography Page

At the end of an Chicago style paper, a writer will include a list of all the sources used in the paper; this list is called a Bibliography. The Bibliography page needs:

  • To begin on its own separate page
  • A title that reads BIbliography
  • Full citations for every source used in the essay, double spaced between citations, with hanging indents, sorted alphabetically

Books

Last, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher, Year of Publication. 

Cooper, Floyd. Jump!: From the Life of Michael Jordan. New York: Philomel Books, 2004. 

eBooks

Last, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher, Year of Publication. Database (accession number). 

Grasso, John. Historical Dictionary or Basketball. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2011. eBook Collection (350566). 

Journal Articles

Last, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): Page Range.  doi (preferred) or Database (accession number). 

Agyemand, Kwame. "Black Male Athlete Activism and the Link to Michael Jordan: A Transformational Leadership and Social Cognitive Theory Analysis." International Review for the Sociology of Sport 47 (December 2012): 433-445. doi: 10.1177/1012690211399509.

Kellner, Douglas. "Sports, Media Culture, and Race -- Some Reflections on Michael Jordan." Sociology of Sport Journal 13 (1996): 458-467. Academic Search Complete (10011783). 

Web Page

Last, First Name. "Title of Web Page." Title of Website, Date of Publication or Access, URL.

Boghossian, Chris. "The 10 Worst defeats in Bulls Franchise History." Chicago Tribune, Dec 9 2018, https://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/basketball/bulls/ct-spt-bulls-largest-defeats-franchise-history-20181209-story.html. 

Multiple Authors

In Chicago, you will always list all the authors of a work in the bibliography citation. 

Mathur, Lynette K., Ike Mathur, and Nanda Rangan. "The Wealth Effects Associated with a Celebrity Endorser: The Michael Jordan Phenomenon." Journal of Advertising Research 37 (June 1997): 67-73. Business Source Complete (9708274749). 

No Author or Date

This is most common for websites.  If no author is listed, in most cases you will leave that portion blank. If no date is listed, you will use the date of access instead.

"Title of Web Page." Title of Website, Date of Access, URL.

"Michael Jordan." Rotten Tomatoes, Accessed Dec 11, 2018. https://www.rottentomatoes.com/celebrity/michael_jordan/

How to Cite In-Text with Footnotes

In Chicago Style, you cite in-text with footnotes. These footnotes are comprised of a superscript number in the text and a corresponding citation in the footer section of the essay. 

For example :
(
via Purdue OWL)

Footnote, superscript number:

 

Footnote, citation in footer:

 

While footnotes and bibliography entries are similar, they are formatted slightly differently, so it's important not to cut and paste assuming both are the same. 

Book

1. First and Last Name,Title of Book (Publisher City: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number or page range.

1. Floyd Cooper, Jump!: From the Life of Michael Jordan (New York: Philomel Books, 2004), 7-8.

eBook

2. First and Last Name, Title of Book (Publisher City: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number or page range, Database (accession number). 

2. John Grasso, Historical Dictionary or Basketball (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2011), 411, eBook Collection (350566). 

Journal Article

3. First and Last Name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume Number (Date of Publication): page number or page range, doi (preferred) or Database (accession number). 

3. Kwame Agyemand"Black Male Athlete Activism and the Link to Michael Jordan: A Transformational Leadership and Social Cognitive Theory Analysis," International Review for the Sociology of Sport 47 (December 2012): 438, doi: 10.1177/1012690211399509.

3. Douglas Kellner, "Sports, Media Culture, and Race -- Some Reflections on Michael Jordan," Sociology of Sport Journal 13 (1996): 459, Academic Search Complete (10011783). 

Web Page

4. First and Last Name, "Title of Web Page," Title of Website, Date of Publication or Access, URL.

4. Chris Boghossian, "The 10 Worst defeats in Bulls Franchise History," Chicago Tribune, Dec 9 2018, https://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/basketball/bulls/ct-spt-bulls-largest-defeats-franchise-history-20181209-story.html. 

Work with Multiple Authors

For 2-3 authors, write out all names in the footnote citation. 

5. Lynette K. Mathur, Ike Mathur, and Nanda Rangan, "The Wealth Effects Associated with a Celebrity Endorser: The Michael Jordan Phenomenon," Journal of Advertising Research 37 (June 1997): 69, Business Source Complete (9708274749). 

For 4 or more authors, write the first author's name plus "et al." in the footnote citation.‚Äč

6. Harry T. Mai, et al., "Performance-Based Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Athletes Differ Between Sports," American Journal of Sports Medicine 45 (August 2017): 2228, doi: 10.1177/0363546517704834. 

Work with No Author or Date 

If a source does not have an author, in most cases you may skip that part of the citation. If a source does not have a date listed, use the date of access instead. 

7. "Title of Web Page," Title of Website, Date of Access, URL.

7. "Michael Jordan," Rotten Tomatoes, Accessed Dec 11, 2018. https://www.rottentomatoes.com/celebrity/michael_jordan/